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Outcomes of the NAM Summit
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit, held in Tehran at the end of August, adopted several documents as the outcome of the Summit, in the final session on 31 August night. Together these documents represent the agreed collective views of the NAM’s 120 member states on a wide range of issues. They provide the NAM countries with a platform on which to base their positions in the next three years.
The Tehran Declaration is a brief 7-page political summary of the key themes of NAM.
On global governance, it states that the current international decision-making architecture in peace and security is outdated and resistant to any change. The UN as the universal multilateral body must play a fundamental role in global governance, and it should be strengthened and modernised, including through revitalising the General Assembly and reforming the Security Council.
The growing importance of developing countries is yet to be reflected in governance structures of international bodies. Key decisions can no longer be the preserve of a small group of countries, and developing countries must have a greater voice in major institutions that coordinate international policies.
The recent crises have exposed the failures of international financial institutions, and these failures to address current world challenges adversely affect developing countries.
For peace and harmony, diversity in global society should be respected; attempts to impose values on other members should be thwarted.
The Declaration states that occupation of Palestine is at the heart of the Middle East crisis. Any solution requires the termination of the occupation, crimes and violations committed by Israel, restoration of the inalienable right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and the establishment of their independent and viable State of Palestine with Al-Quds Al-Sharif as its capital.
Racism and racial discrimination are affronts to human dignity and the resurgence of contemporary and new forms of such crimes in various parts of the world is a matter of grave concern. Thus, it is imperative to address with greater resolve and political will all forms and manifestation of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.
The Declaration also states that all human rights are indivisible, interdependent and interrelated, and human rights issues must be addressed through a constructive, non-confrontational, non-politicized, non-selective and dialogue-based as well as cooperative approach, in a fair, equal and balanced manner, with objectivity, respect for cultural diversity and national sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in the internal affairs of States, taking into account the political, historical, social, religious and cultural particularities of each country.
The Declaration states that nuclear weapons are the most inhumane weapons ever conceived. The maintenance of strategic and tactical nuclear stockpile and their continued modernization, as well as new military doctrines setting the rationale for their possible use, particularly against non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS), represent the greatest threat to humankind. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) did not provide a right for nuclear weapon states to keep their nuclear arsenals indefinitely. States Parties to the NPT have obligations under Article VI of the NPT to destroy all nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework, which is yet to be fulfilled. It is imperative to conclude a comprehensive convention on nuclear disarmament.
It adds that all states should be able to enjoy the basic and inalienable right to the development, research, production and use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, without any discrimination and in conformity with their respective international legal obligations. Therefore, nothing should be interpreted in a way to inhibit or restrict the right of states to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. States’ choices and decisions, in the field of peaceful uses of nuclear technology and their fuel cycle policies, including those of the Islamic Republic of Iran, must be respected.
The Declaration also states that inviolability of peaceful nuclear activities should be upheld and any attack or threat of attack against peaceful nuclear facilities operational or under construction amounts to a serious danger to human beings and the environment, and constitutes a grave violation of international law, of the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, and of regulations of the IAEA. There is a pressing need for a comprehensive multilaterally negotiated legal instrument prohibiting attacks, or threat of attacks on nuclear facilities devoted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
The Non-Aligned countries also agree to refrain from recognizing, adopting or implementing extra-territorial or unilateral coercive measures or laws, including unilateral economic sanctions, other intimidating measures, and arbitrary travel restrictions, that seek to exert pressure on Non-Aligned Countries . They agree to oppose and condemn these measures or laws and their continued application, and request States applying these measures or laws to revoke them fully and immediately.
The Declaration also condemned all acts of terrorism, in all their forms and manifestations, wherever and by whoever committed. It called for dialogue among religions, cultures and civilizations to be enhanced, towards reducing confrontation, suppressing xenophobia and islamophobia, and the promoting of respect for diversity based on justice, fraternity and equality.
THE FINAL DOCUMENT
The Final Document adopted by the NAM leaders contains details of the NAM positions on many issues in its 158 pages.
Chapter I on Global Issues contains a review of the international situation, the role of NAM, multilateralism, peaceful settlement of disputes, defamation of religions, right of self determination, follow up to UN conferences, disarmament, terrorism, democracy, North-South dialogue. Its largest section is on UN reform, covering the General Assembly, selection of the UN secretary general, Security Council reform, strengthening ECOSOC, the Human Rights Council, the peacebuilding commission, UN secretariat and management reform and UN system-wide coherence.
Chapter II deals with Regional and Sub Regional Political Issues. It contains NAM’s positions on the Middle East (including the peace process, occupied Palestine, occupied Syrian Golan, Lebanon); Africa (Chagos Archipelago, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Great Lakes Region, Zimbabwe, Mali, Western Sahara, Comorian island of Mayotte, Djibouti/Eritrea, Gulf of Guinea); Asia (Afghanistan, Iraq and Kuwait, Yemen, Southeast Asia, Syria), Latin America and Caribbean (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, UNASUR, ALBA-TCP-Petrocaribe, Summits of South America with Arab and African countries, and several countries), and Europe.
Chapter III on Development, Social and Human Rights Issues compiles the NAM positions on many issues, including the current global economic crisis, unemployment, Africa, LDCs, middle income countries, trade, South-South cooperation, food security, migration, water, desertification, biodiversity, illegal fishing, dumping of toxic waste, energy, climate change, human rights, racism, international humanitarian law, humanitarian assistance, ICT, women, indigenous people, illiteracy, health, crime, trafficking in persons, drug trafficking and corruption.
DECLARATIONS ON PALESTINE
The NAM Summit also adopted two specific Declarations on Palestine. The Solidarity Declaration on Palestine condemned the inability of the NAM Committee on Palestine to convene a meeting in Ramallah in August due to Israel’s measures preventing the entry of NAM Ministers. The NAM leaders reiterated their grave concern on the critical situation in Occupied Palestinian Territory and condemned Israel’s military raids and attacks on the population, blockade of Gaza Strip, settlement colonisation campaign, detention of thousands of Palestinians, forced displacement of civilians and other collective punishment measures. They deplored the vast devastation caused by the Israeli occupation, the critical humanitarian conditions in Gaza Strip due to the blockade, and demanded the end of the illegal blockade. They expressed concern about the inhumane treatment of Palestinian political prisoners. They demanded that Israel cease all illegal policies in the Occupied Palestinian territory. They called for immediate efforts to salvage the two-state solution and a fair peace process. They welcomed the application of 23 Sept 2011 by Palestine to be admitted as a UN member state. They called for an urgent plan of action to end Israeli occupation and realise the independence of the State of Palestine and achieve a just and lasting peace.
The Declaration on Palestine Political Prisoners expressed the NAM leaders’ grave concern about the hunger strike by thousands of Palestinian prisoners that began on 17 April 2012, expressed solidarity with the prisoners and expressed serious concern about their fragile health conditions. They condemned Israel’s campaign of arrest and detention of Palestinian civilians and deplored the violent military raids, forced interrogations and other dehumanising measures. They also called for international action to support the prisoners.
TEHRAN PLAN OF ACTION (2012-2015)
Also adopted was a Tehran Plan of Action, a 30-page document which in table form summarises the points of action and initiatives arising from the Final Document. This serves as a check list of actions that the NAM is committed to undertake in the next 3 years until the next summit.
http://alainet.org/active/58532Documentos Relacionados:A Summit that revitalised the Non Aligned Movement - Khor Martin [2012-09-04]
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